Modeling and Simulation Forum #13 Registration

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #13


"Impact of injection rate ramp-up on nucleation and arrest of dynamic fault slip"

Presented by: Federico Ciardo (ETH-Zurich)

December 15, 2021 at 11 am MST

Injection of fluid into the subsurface is a common operation in many industrial applications, such as wastewater disposal, hydraulic fracturing and deep geothermal energy exploitation. One of the drawbacks of these engineering applications is the generation of seismicity that in some severe cases might lead to a complete shutdown of operations.

The injection scenario, either in terms of pressure or volumetric rate, is one of the key controlling parameters for fluid induced seismicity. Numerous studies on the effects of injection parameters on earthquakes nucleation and occurrence along faults have been carried out. Most of them, however, assume idealized injection scenarios such as constant fluid over-pressure or constant injection volumetric rate.

In this contribution, we investigate extensively the effect of a finite ramp-up of injection rate, commonly present in many realistic injection protocols, on slip stability along a planar frictional weakening fault under plane-strain conditions (see Figure). We solve the coupled hydro-mechanical problem and investigate all the slip development regimes in the problem parametric space, including stable a-seismic slip, nucleation of a finite size dynamic event and nucleation of a run-way dynamic rupture.

FIGURE >>> Plane-strain fault model

Our results suggest that injection-induced seismicity can be mitigated by controlling the fault pressurization rate, in the limit when fluid diffusion time scale is lower than injection ramp-up time scale. Analytical derivations support our numerical results. The findings of this work can be useful for practical designing of injection operations in hydro-shearing type of stimulations.


 

This is the 12th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar will be recorded and made available for viewing

Registration is required

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Modeling and Simulation Forum #12 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #12


"Hybrid fracture/matrix modeling for well completion options evaluation"

Presented by: Lynn Munday and Somayajulu L. N. Dhulipala (Idaho National Laboratory)

November 17, 2021 at 11 am MST

Orientation and completion for well pairs that have been subjected to multi-zonal stimulation play a critical role in the long-term performance of an Enhanced Geothermal Reservoir. Here we present the development of a methodology to rapidly and efficiently numerically simulate mixed fracture-matrix flow systems for evaluation of well design and completion options. The methodology is based on a loose coupling framework, allowing the fracture and matrix systems to be meshed separately. The fracture system includes the integration of fracture growth and aperture data from well stimulation simulations of stochastically generated fracture networks. Automatic mesh refinement is used in the matrix simulation to resolve heat transfer near the fracture network. This simulation framework is used to efficiently determine optimal production and injection well placement using adaptive sampling.

This is the 12th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Partner Spotlight – UGS

The Utah Geological Survey (UGS) is a state agency and division of the Utah Department of Natural Resources. The UGS provides timely scientific information about Utah’s geologic environment, resources, and hazards. Our work is focused on the generation and dissemination of geologic information to a variety of stakeholders that include the general public, and a diverse group of private, local, state, and federal entities. Seven specialized programs comprise the UGS: Energy & Minerals, Geologic Hazards, Geologic Information & Outreach, Geologic Mapping, Groundwater & Wetlands, Data Management, and Paleontology. As part of its mission the UGS also houses unique collections of geoscience data and physical samples including core and cuttings relating to Utah’s geothermal and other geologic resources.


The UGS strives to promote values that include excellence, integrity, and objectivity in everything we do; responsible stewardship of Utah’s geologic and energy resources; the free exchange of ideas and information in a spirit of cooperation; and provide prompt and courteous service to our customers and stakeholders.

The UGS celebrates and supports diversity, equity, and inclusion in the Geosciences and aims to maintain a safe and inclusive environment for our employees and the public we serve.

The UGS has been involved with the Utah FORGE project since its inception in 2014. UGS work on the FORGE project is based on strong collaboration with researchers at the Energy and Geoscience at University of Utah, the Idaho National Laboratory, and many others.  Early work included characterizing aspects of the site that include; the thermal setting, the groundwater system, geophysical setting focusing on gravity and basin depth, and geologic setting of the site and adjoining Mineral Mountains. This work culminated in the awarding of the FORGE project to the Utah site, and subsequent site development as a unique national laboratory focused on novel techniques to stimulate and develop low permeability hot rock resources.

Current UGS work is focused on campaign gravity, GPS deformation, and groundwater monitoring on and adjoining the Utah FORGE site. The goal of this work is to constrain baseline and temporal trends both prior to and during development and stimulation activities at the site. Recent work has included installation of two continuous GPS stations and regional groundwater sampling to constrain geochemistry as it relates to the geothermal setting at the site. Additional work has focused on refining and better constraining the conceptual geologic and hydrologic setting of the Utah FORGE site and adjoining North Milford Valley.


Cartographers at the UGS have recently completed a readily accessible geoscientific webmap that presents various background datasets (infrastructure, geologic, thermal, hydrologic, etc.) for the FORGE site. It is accessible at https://geology.utah.gov/apps/forge/. The UGS also assists with well permitting and acts as liaison with State of Utah agencies that regulate various parts of the Utah FORGE development.

Modeling and Simulation Forum #11 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #11


"Ground acceleration modeling from potential induced seismicity"

Presented by: Chandrakanth Bolisetti (Idaho National Laboratory)

October 20, 2021 at 11 am MDT

Ground motions generated by induced seismicity is an important consideration and design factor for the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and operations. Typically, ground motions are estimated from empirically based ground motion prediction equations using a moment magnitude and a distance with factors to account for local site conditions and in some cases faulting style. Ground motions specific to a site, recorded or modeled, for the specific site conditions and fault geometries may better inform hazard and risk calculations. Here we demonstrate a deterministic calculation of ground motions from postulated moment magnitudes at the Utah FORGE site using source-to-site earthquake simulations using the finite-element method in the codes, FALCON and MASTODON, developed and maintained at the Idaho National Laboratory. Sample results are presented from these simulations and a plan for future work is discussed.

This is the 11th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Modeling and Simulation Forum #10 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #10


"Utah FORGE site field update and well 16A(78)-32 stimulation modeling"

Presented by: Aleta Finnila(Golder), Branko Damjanac (Itasca), Pengju Xing (UofU)

September 15, 2021 at 11 am MDT

Join us to learn about current activities at the Utah FORGE site and progress of the first deep deviated well 16A(78)-32 stimulation modeling.

This is the 10th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Modeling and Simulation Forum #9 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #9


"Microseismic monitoring and risk mitigation plan for the first Utah FORGE stimulations at the toe of 16A-32"

Presented by: Ben Dyer, Falko Bethmann (Geo-Energie Suisse)

August 18, 2021 at 11 am MDT

The injection well 16A-32, drilled at the Utah FORGE site towards the end of 2020 has a lateral section of ~4000ft that dips at around 30° and terminates at 8500ft at a temperature of ~240°C. Planned for later this year, a small number of stimulation tests at the toe of 16A-32 and will be monitored in real time by a deep microseismic network and large surface array. This forum will present the design of the deep monitoring network, the anticipated network performance and mitigation of seismic risks.

The deep network will consist of three established high temperature geophone strings and realtime processing software to derive event hypocentres and magnitude estimates. This primary network will be supplemented by behind casing and wireline DAS in the same monitoring hole together with a three level, 3 component fibre optic sensor string to evaluate the relative seismic performance of these less established systems. The aim is to process all of the data from the deep 3C geophone and fibre optic 3C sensor strings together with a subset of the DAS data in real time in order to monitor the data quality and synchronisation of these separate sensor systems, which will be a challenge due to large data volumes, different file formats and remote acquisition locations. For mitigation of seismic risk, processed data will be fed into a 'classical' traffic light system and an advanced traffic light scheme that incorporates lessons that have been learned from geothermal stimulations in Basel, Pohang and most recently from the Bedretto underground lab.

This is the 9th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is now available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Partner Spotlight – UUSS

University of Utah Seismograph Stations - UUSS

Reducing the risk from earthquakes in Utah through research, education, and public service.

The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) maintains and operates a combined urban and regional seismic network throughout the State of Utah and a regional seismic network in Yellowstone National Park. UUSS monitors seismicity in these regions by providing earthquake locations and magnitudes. The monitoring in Utah is part of a state-federal partnership with the U. S. Geological Survey Advanced National Seismic System. Monitoring in Yellowstone is done as part of the U. S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.

In addition to regional monitoring, UUSS is building, maintaining, and operating a seismic network local to Utah FORGE. The primary goal of this network is seismic hazard monitoring. The complete network will consist of six stations located on the surface in carefully designed vaults, six stations in shallow boreholes, one deeper borehole, and three accelerometers located close to structures. Data from these instruments are sent back to UUSS in real-time. Once all stations are installed, over 2 GB of data will be collected and processed each day.


This data feeds into an automatic processing system that detects and locates earthquakes. For larger earthquakes, maps of ground shaking are generated, and alarms are sent for rapid review to seismologists who are on call 24 hours a day. All earthquakes are reviewed by seismic analysts and posted to the web.

To complement the local network, UUSS has deployed dense arrays of temporary geophones at times of stimulation to help better constrain the background seismicity and seismic velocity structure. The data from these deployments contributes to special studies. In one study, UUSS mapped the shallow shear-wave velocity structure of Utah FORGE and the surrounding area, and in another study, new algorithms were developed for detecting very small magnitude events from the stimulation process.

 

Find out more about other Utah FORGE team and partners HERE

Modeling and Simulation Forum #8 recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #8


"Utah FORGE DFN model file availability on GDR"

Presented by: Aleta Finnila (Golder)

July 21, 2021 at 11 am MDT

The initial 2019 Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model developed for the Utah FORGE reservoir was based primarily on data from the vertical pilot well, 58-32, and outcrop data in the nearby mountain range. Updates to the DFN model have been made based on the incorporation of data from two newer wells in the reservoir, the highly deviated injection well, 16A(78)-32, and another deep vertical well, 56-32. This updated 2021 DFN model should be useful to modelers interested in having natural fracture sets for use in simulations such as well hydraulic stimulation, local stress evolution, flow pathway analysis, and thermal breakthrough in proposed injection and production well configurations. Various subsets of both the 2019 and 2021 DFN models are available on the public Geothermal Data Repository (GDR). This presentation highlights what Utah FORGE DFN files are available on the GDR and summarizes the main differences between the 2019 and 2021 models.

This is the 8th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

 

 

Modeling and Simulation Forum #7 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #7


"An Overview of Modeling and Simulation related to Utah FORGE Research Awards"

Presented by: Robert Podgorney (INL)

May 19 , 2021

This presentation discussed planned modeling activities from the teams recently announced as selected for award negotiations from the Utah FORGE Solicitation 2020-1.

This is the 7th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

Partner Spotlight — Geo-Energie Suisse

Celebrating its 10th anniversary this year, Geo-Energie Suisse AG (GES) is a Swiss company focused on deep geothermal energy for electricity and heat production. The founding members include municipal utilities and regional energy supply companies from all over Switzerland. Geo-Energie Suisse employs ten people, and it is also supported by numerous external specialists.

The company aims to develop deep EGS projects in crystalline rocks through the use of multi-stage stimulation to increase the permeability of the rock while reducing the seismic risk. Haute-Sorne is the company’s most advanced project in Switzerland. Its setting shows many similarities with the Utah FORGE project, which makes the collaboration with the University of Utah-based team particularly exciting.

Geo-Energie Suisse core competencies reside in seismic risk assessments, seismic monitoring and real time seismic data processing and evaluation. At Utah FORGE, GES intends to test and validate new methods and downhole instruments and bring them to the next level of innovation. GES is also assisting in the design of the seismic monitoring program, as well as conducting numerical analyses of the seismic data.

The figure shows the results of resolution and sensitivity numerical modelling performed by GES to assess the optimal configuration of monitoring boreholes and sensors at Utah FORGE. Section-view (left) and map-view (right) of the monitoring boreholes and the first of two deep, highly deviated wells (16A(78)-32) that will be used to create the reservoir.

At the end of 2020, Geo-Energie Suisse succeeded in obtaining technical proof of its multi-stage stimulation concept. The successful demonstration took place in the Bedretto Underground laboratory for Geosciences and Geoenergy of the ETH Zurich in the Swiss Alps. Innovative sensors, measurement and control techniques were tested for the first time and enabled the observation and control of the hydraulic stimulations. These techniques increase safety when creating geothermal reservoirs in crystalline rock. In addition, a seismicity forecasting method, developed by ETH Zurich, was also successfully implemented in the demonstration project. GES will now validate the findings gained in the Bedretto Laboratory at the Utah FORGE test site in the high-temperature range.

This figure shows the spatial distribution of the microseismicity that occurred in 10 temporally staggered intervals and spatially isolated stimulation zones leading to permanent microcracks in the granite rock.

The stimulations were carried out by Geo-Energie Suisse AG in the Bedretto Laboratory of ETH Zurich in November and December 2020. © Geo-Energie Suisse. More pictures and videos here

The Swiss Federal Office of Energy supports the deep geothermal project in Haute-Sorne and especially the innovations that will substantially reduce the risk of induced seismicity for deep EGS projects. The Swiss, Utah FORGE and the international geothermal industry will be well served by such improvements in safety and the success of future EGS projects.

www.geo-energie.ch/ (French/German)