Did you know… there is a geyser on one of Saturn’s moons?

Did you know... there is a geyser on one of Saturn's moons?

And not just one, but over 100 huge water-vapor geysers occur at the south pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. They are believed to come from an ocean beneath the moon’s outer ice crust in which water comes to the surface through cracks in the ice that are called tiger stripes. Due to Enceladus’ tenuous atmosphere, the water vapor re-freezes and forms ice particles that fall back down to the moon’s surface, covering it in fresh ice that makes Enceladus the brightest object amongst all the planets.

More tantalizing is the scale of geysering. The plumes are the tallest known anywhere in the solar system, rising tens of kilometers above the surface of the moon. They are now known to be the source of Saturn’s E-ring, and the eruptions might be triggered by tidal forces. Remarkably, Enceladus is only about 500 km in diameter. The photographs from the Cassini mission from 2006 to 2017 have provided amazing insights about extraordinary geological activity on this small icy moon.

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/cassini/science/enceladus/

https://www.space.com/32412-saturn-moon-enceladus-geysers-mystery-mechanism.html

Geyser plumes on Enceladus (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech).  https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/806/bursting-at-the-seams-the-geyser-basin-of-enceladus/

Enceladus geysers feed Saturn’s E-ring (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech). https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ghostly-fingers-of-enceladus

Word of the Week – Well Logging

Well Logging

Methods used to survey and characterize the physical and geological characteristics along and near the wall of a well, including the temperature, pressure, fracture density, fracture orientation, porosity, rock type, casing integrity, and fluid chemistry.

Word of the Week – Spudding In

Spudding In

Denotes the start of the well. The term originated from cable tool drilling where spudding is the act of hoisting the drill pipe and letting it fall freely so that the drill bit strikes the bottom of the well bore with sufficient force to break the rock.

Did you know… Pamukkale is a travel HOT spot?

Did you know... Pamukkale is a travel HOT spot?

Pamukkale is a western Turkish town known for the mineral-rich thermal waters that cascade over steep, white terraces that reach over 100 meters (~330 feet) high. Across the terraces, there are a total of 17 hot springs, which range in temperature from 35-100 degrees Celsius (95-212 degrees Fahrenheit) year-round.  The name in Turkish means “cotton castle” as it resembles the cotton plantations in central Turkey.

However, the white terraces are not cotton – they’re travertine rock! Travertine is a form of limestone that is deposited over time by mineral waters, most commonly, hot springs. The mass of hot springs sources in the area produces high amounts of calcium carbonate in the water so when the water hits the open air, it becomes white travertine rock.

Before it was Pamukkale, the site used to be the lively Greco-Roman city Hierapolis. Hierapolis was a spa city founded in 190 BC. Just like today, it was one of Turkey’s most popular hot springs. The ruins of the city are well preserved and hold what is known as Cleopatra’s pool, who is said to have bathed there, along with many other historically famous people.

The hot springs are open to the public to swim and relax in, and they have been known to be great for healing.

 

References:

https://www.chasingthedonkey.com/things-to-do-in-pamukkale-hot-spings-guide/

https://www.traveltalktours.com/interesting-facts-pamukkale/

Word of the Week – Directional Drilling

Directional Drilling

The practice of steering the trajectory of a well during drilling from vertical to a deviated angle, including horizontal drilling used for oil and gas production from poorly permeable rocks. Directional drilling may also be used to maneuver around obstructions or to drill beneath areas that are inaccessible on the surface.