Modeling and Simulation Forum #10 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #10


"Utah FORGE site field update and well 16A(78)-32 stimulation modeling"

Presented by: Aleta Finnila(Golder), Branko Damjanac (Itasca), Pengju Xing (UofU)

September 15, 2021 at 11 am MDT

Join us to learn about current activities at the Utah FORGE site and progress of the first deep deviated well 16A(78)-32 stimulation modeling.

This is the 10th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Did you know… there is a submarine volcano in Antarctica?

Did you know… there is a submarine volcano in Antarctica?

Deception Island, Antarctica is home to an active submarine volcano which has created a large volcanic crater in the middle of the South Shetland Islands.

The total land area of the island is 98.5 km2(~38.0 mi2), with a diameter of 15 km (~9.3 mi). The island rises up to 539 m (~1768.4 ft) above the sea level. More than 57% of the island is covered by permanent glaciers.

The average annual air temperature is -3˚C (26.6˚F); however, temperatures can range from a high of 11˚C to a chilly -28˚C (51.8˚F to -18.4˚F.)

The island’s geothermal heat is found just below the surface. This means visitors can dig a shallow depression into black sand beaches to enjoy the warmth - especially appealing after taking a

Technically, there are no official hot springs on the island, however, along the shoreline of Pendulum Cove, there are thermal springs with temperatures over 70˚C (158˚F). Due to the mixture the cold and hot water, a natural hot tub is created.

But before you jump in, consult a trained expert or experienced expedition guide. They know which areas are safe for a relaxing soak in the steamy water.

Stay tuned to learn about the other active volcano, Erebus.

Sources:

http://www.deceptionisland.aq/

https://www.cntraveler.com/gallery/the-best-hot-springs-in-the-world

Modeling and Simulation Forum #9 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #9


"Microseismic monitoring and risk mitigation plan for the first Utah FORGE stimulations at the toe of 16A-32"

Presented by: Ben Dyer, Falko Bethmann (Geo-Energie Suisse)

August 18, 2021 at 11 am MDT

The injection well 16A-32, drilled at the Utah FORGE site towards the end of 2020 has a lateral section of ~4000ft that dips at around 30° and terminates at 8500ft at a temperature of ~240°C. Planned for later this year, a small number of stimulation tests at the toe of 16A-32 and will be monitored in real time by a deep microseismic network and large surface array. This forum will present the design of the deep monitoring network, the anticipated network performance and mitigation of seismic risks.

The deep network will consist of three established high temperature geophone strings and realtime processing software to derive event hypocentres and magnitude estimates. This primary network will be supplemented by behind casing and wireline DAS in the same monitoring hole together with a three level, 3 component fibre optic sensor string to evaluate the relative seismic performance of these less established systems. The aim is to process all of the data from the deep 3C geophone and fibre optic 3C sensor strings together with a subset of the DAS data in real time in order to monitor the data quality and synchronisation of these separate sensor systems, which will be a challenge due to large data volumes, different file formats and remote acquisition locations. For mitigation of seismic risk, processed data will be fed into a 'classical' traffic light system and an advanced traffic light scheme that incorporates lessons that have been learned from geothermal stimulations in Basel, Pohang and most recently from the Bedretto underground lab.

This is the 9th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is now available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Did you know… Alaska uses geothermal energy to produce electricity?

Did you know… Alaska uses geothermal energy to produce electricity?

It might seem highly unlikely that geothermal energy could be harnessed in the Arctic climate of Alaska considering HOT water is required. However, this is not the case! Geothermal reservoirs can be found almost anywhere in the world. In fact, Alaska has 97 known thermal springs and is one of eight states to use geothermal energy to produce electricity. The first geothermal power plant in Alaska launched in 2006 at Chena Hot Springs and can generate up to 730 kilowatts of power. It is located in the Interior hot springs geothermal region.

The Chena Hot Springs Resort uses geothermal energy in many different ways. The geothermal energy generated supplies power and heat to its greenhouses, swimming pools, and other facilities. In order to produce the power, a binary plant, that runs on the organic Rankine cycle, is used with a generating capacity of 680 kW. The plant runs on 165˚F (~73.9˚C) water meaning the geothermal power plant generates electricity at the lowest temperature in the world. The resort also has a 16-ton absorption chiller, which uses geothermal energy to keep their outdoor ice museum frozen all year round.

Including the Interior hot springs, there are two other active geothermal regions in Alaska – the Southeast hot springs and the “Ring of Fire” volcanoes. The Interior hot springs run from the Yukon Territory in Canada to the Seward Peninsula in Alaska. The “Ring of Fire” volcanoes include the Alaska Peninsula, Mount Edgecumbe, the Aleutians, and the Wrangell Mountains.

Currently, the Alaska Center for Energy and Power, or ACEP, is working with landowners, multiple utilities, and communities to assess resources and evaluate options for the development of geothermal energy in multiple parts of the state.

Sources:

https://dggs.alaska.gov/energy/geothermal.html#:~:text=Alaska%20is%20geothermally%20active%20with,and%20began%20operation%20in%202006.

https://acep.uaf.edu/projects-(collection)/geothermal-resource-assessment-projects.aspx

https://alaskarenewableenergy.org/technologies/geothermal/

Partner Spotlight – UUSS

University of Utah Seismograph Stations - UUSS

Reducing the risk from earthquakes in Utah through research, education, and public service.

The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) maintains and operates a combined urban and regional seismic network throughout the State of Utah and a regional seismic network in Yellowstone National Park. UUSS monitors seismicity in these regions by providing earthquake locations and magnitudes. The monitoring in Utah is part of a state-federal partnership with the U. S. Geological Survey Advanced National Seismic System. Monitoring in Yellowstone is done as part of the U. S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.

In addition to regional monitoring, UUSS is building, maintaining, and operating a seismic network local to Utah FORGE. The primary goal of this network is seismic hazard monitoring. The complete network will consist of six stations located on the surface in carefully designed vaults, six stations in shallow boreholes, one deeper borehole, and three accelerometers located close to structures. Data from these instruments are sent back to UUSS in real-time. Once all stations are installed, over 2 GB of data will be collected and processed each day.


This data feeds into an automatic processing system that detects and locates earthquakes. For larger earthquakes, maps of ground shaking are generated, and alarms are sent for rapid review to seismologists who are on call 24 hours a day. All earthquakes are reviewed by seismic analysts and posted to the web.

To complement the local network, UUSS has deployed dense arrays of temporary geophones at times of stimulation to help better constrain the background seismicity and seismic velocity structure. The data from these deployments contributes to special studies. In one study, UUSS mapped the shallow shear-wave velocity structure of Utah FORGE and the surrounding area, and in another study, new algorithms were developed for detecting very small magnitude events from the stimulation process.

 

Find out more about other Utah FORGE team and partners HERE

Modeling and Simulation Forum #8 recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #8


"Utah FORGE DFN model file availability on GDR"

Presented by: Aleta Finnila (Golder)

July 21, 2021 at 11 am MDT

The initial 2019 Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model developed for the Utah FORGE reservoir was based primarily on data from the vertical pilot well, 58-32, and outcrop data in the nearby mountain range. Updates to the DFN model have been made based on the incorporation of data from two newer wells in the reservoir, the highly deviated injection well, 16A(78)-32, and another deep vertical well, 56-32. This updated 2021 DFN model should be useful to modelers interested in having natural fracture sets for use in simulations such as well hydraulic stimulation, local stress evolution, flow pathway analysis, and thermal breakthrough in proposed injection and production well configurations. Various subsets of both the 2019 and 2021 DFN models are available on the public Geothermal Data Repository (GDR). This presentation highlights what Utah FORGE DFN files are available on the GDR and summarizes the main differences between the 2019 and 2021 models.

This is the 8th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

 

 

Did you know… there is a geyser on one of Saturn’s moons?

Did you know... there is a geyser on one of Saturn's moons?

And not just one, but over 100 huge water-vapor geysers occur at the south pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. They are believed to come from an ocean beneath the moon’s outer ice crust in which water comes to the surface through cracks in the ice that are called tiger stripes. Due to Enceladus’ tenuous atmosphere, the water vapor re-freezes and forms ice particles that fall back down to the moon’s surface, covering it in fresh ice that makes Enceladus the brightest object amongst all the planets.

More tantalizing is the scale of geysering. The plumes are the tallest known anywhere in the solar system, rising tens of kilometers above the surface of the moon. They are now known to be the source of Saturn’s E-ring, and the eruptions might be triggered by tidal forces. Remarkably, Enceladus is only about 500 km in diameter. The photographs from the Cassini mission from 2006 to 2017 have provided amazing insights about extraordinary geological activity on this small icy moon.

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/cassini/science/enceladus/

https://www.space.com/32412-saturn-moon-enceladus-geysers-mystery-mechanism.html

Geyser plumes on Enceladus (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech).  https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/806/bursting-at-the-seams-the-geyser-basin-of-enceladus/

Enceladus geysers feed Saturn’s E-ring (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech). https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ghostly-fingers-of-enceladus

Did you know… Pamukkale is a travel HOT spot?

Did you know... Pamukkale is a travel HOT spot?

Pamukkale is a western Turkish town known for the mineral-rich thermal waters that cascade over steep, white terraces that reach over 100 meters (~330 feet) high. Across the terraces, there are a total of 17 hot springs, which range in temperature from 35-100 degrees Celsius (95-212 degrees Fahrenheit) year-round.  The name in Turkish means “cotton castle” as it resembles the cotton plantations in central Turkey.

However, the white terraces are not cotton – they’re travertine rock! Travertine is a form of limestone that is deposited over time by mineral waters, most commonly, hot springs. The mass of hot springs sources in the area produces high amounts of calcium carbonate in the water so when the water hits the open air, it becomes white travertine rock.

Before it was Pamukkale, the site used to be the lively Greco-Roman city Hierapolis. Hierapolis was a spa city founded in 190 BC. Just like today, it was one of Turkey’s most popular hot springs. The ruins of the city are well preserved and hold what is known as Cleopatra’s pool, who is said to have bathed there, along with many other historically famous people.

The hot springs are open to the public to swim and relax in, and they have been known to be great for healing.

 

References:

https://www.chasingthedonkey.com/things-to-do-in-pamukkale-hot-spings-guide/

https://www.traveltalktours.com/interesting-facts-pamukkale/

Modeling and Simulation Forum #7 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #7


"An Overview of Modeling and Simulation related to Utah FORGE Research Awards"

Presented by: Robert Podgorney (INL)

May 19 , 2021

This presentation discussed planned modeling activities from the teams recently announced as selected for award negotiations from the Utah FORGE Solicitation 2020-1.

This is the 7th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE