Word of the Week – Basalt

Basalt

Dark grey fine grained volcanic rock composed of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine, with relatively low silica (45-52 wt %). The composition reflects an upper mantle origin. Basalt is the most common type of volcanic rock on Earth, and it erupts from mid-ocean spreading ridges and hot spots (e.g., Hawaii and Iceland). The intrusive coarsely crystalline igneous rock equivalent is called gabbro.

Modeling and Simulation Forum #13 Registration

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #13


"Impact of injection rate ramp-up on nucleation and arrest of dynamic fault slip"

Presented by: Federico Ciardo (ETH-Zurich)

December 15, 2021 at 11 am MST

Injection of fluid into the subsurface is a common operation in many industrial applications, such as wastewater disposal, hydraulic fracturing and deep geothermal energy exploitation. One of the drawbacks of these engineering applications is the generation of seismicity that in some severe cases might lead to a complete shutdown of operations.

The injection scenario, either in terms of pressure or volumetric rate, is one of the key controlling parameters for fluid induced seismicity. Numerous studies on the effects of injection parameters on earthquakes nucleation and occurrence along faults have been carried out. Most of them, however, assume idealized injection scenarios such as constant fluid over-pressure or constant injection volumetric rate.

In this contribution, we investigate extensively the effect of a finite ramp-up of injection rate, commonly present in many realistic injection protocols, on slip stability along a planar frictional weakening fault under plane-strain conditions (see Figure). We solve the coupled hydro-mechanical problem and investigate all the slip development regimes in the problem parametric space, including stable a-seismic slip, nucleation of a finite size dynamic event and nucleation of a run-way dynamic rupture.

FIGURE >>> Plane-strain fault model

Our results suggest that injection-induced seismicity can be mitigated by controlling the fault pressurization rate, in the limit when fluid diffusion time scale is lower than injection ramp-up time scale. Analytical derivations support our numerical results. The findings of this work can be useful for practical designing of injection operations in hydro-shearing type of stimulations.


 

This is the 12th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar will be recorded and made available for viewing

Registration is required

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Did you know… three of the largest geothermal power plants in the world are found in Indonesia?

Did you know… three of the largest geothermal power plants in the world are found in Indonesia?

Indonesia is home to beautiful tropical islands, a rich and vibrant culture, and geothermal power plants! The first exploration geothermal wells were drilled in the 1920s, but the first power production did not start until 1978 at Kamojang. Today, there are over 17 producing fields, including three of the world’s largest.

The biggest is called Gunung Salak, which is located 70 km from Jakarta, the Indonesian capital, on the island of Java with an installed capacity of 377 MW. The field was drilled and put into production by Unocal in 1994 and later acquired by Chevron in 2005. In December of 2016, the field was taken over by Star Energy. Electricity is generated and sold by the state-owned company, PLN.

The second biggest field is Sarulla. It generates 330 MW of electricity and is based in the Tapanuli Utara district of the North Sumatra Province. The project is owned by the Sarulla Operations Limited consortium and electricity is generated  by three units of 110 MW each. The first unit was commissioned in March of 2017 and the second in October of the same year. The third unit was commissioned in May of 2018. Geothermal power supplies electricity to approximately 2.1 million homes.

The third largest geothermal project is Darajat which is located 270 km southeast of Jakarata near Garut in the Parirwangi District of West Java. The installed capacity is 271 MW and the resource was initially developed by Amoseas, later acquired by Chevron and since 2016 it has been run by Star Energy. The first power generation commenced in 1994, with the commissioning of a 55 MW unit. A 95 MW unit was commissioned in 2000 and a third unit capable of generating 121 MW was commissioned in 2007.

It is no wonder Indonesia is the second largest producer of geothermal energy in the world, with huge potential for additional growth.

Source:

https://www.power-technology.com/features/feature-top-10-biggest-geothermal-power-plants-in-the-world/

https://www.nsenergybusiness.com/features/top-geothermal-power-producing-countries/

https://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC/2020/01073.pdf

Word of the Week – Packers and Plugs

Packers and Plugs

Downhole devices emplaced into a well to seal zones and intervals so they can be pressurized by pumping fluid from the surface in order to stimulate fractures at a specified location. They are designed for temporary and permanent deployments, depending on operational requirements, and they are commonly used for zonal isolation.

Modeling and Simulation Forum #12 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #12


"Hybrid fracture/matrix modeling for well completion options evaluation"

Presented by: Lynn Munday and Somayajulu L. N. Dhulipala (Idaho National Laboratory)

November 17, 2021 at 11 am MST

Orientation and completion for well pairs that have been subjected to multi-zonal stimulation play a critical role in the long-term performance of an Enhanced Geothermal Reservoir. Here we present the development of a methodology to rapidly and efficiently numerically simulate mixed fracture-matrix flow systems for evaluation of well design and completion options. The methodology is based on a loose coupling framework, allowing the fracture and matrix systems to be meshed separately. The fracture system includes the integration of fracture growth and aperture data from well stimulation simulations of stochastically generated fracture networks. Automatic mesh refinement is used in the matrix simulation to resolve heat transfer near the fracture network. This simulation framework is used to efficiently determine optimal production and injection well placement using adaptive sampling.

This is the 12th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page

Did you know… Italy is home to the oldest geothermal plant in the world?

Did you know… Italy is home to the oldest geothermal plant in the world?

The first geothermal plant in the world is located in Tuscany, Italy.

The Larderello geothermal plant was constructed in the early twentieth century thanks to Prince Piero Ginori Conti of Trevignano. Through his work in the processing of boric acid, Conti found his way into the world of geothermal energy and, in 1904, created the first geothermal energy generator.

Stationed in the Larderello dry steam field, his generator could produce up to 10 kW of energy. It also powered five light bulbs.

From there, Larderello’s geothermal potential expanded. In 1911, in an area called Devil’s Valley, construction of a geothermal plant was begun. The plant was completed in 1913.

That first plant, Larderello 1, had a capacity of 250 kW and could produce 2750 kW of electricity. That electricity powered the Italian railway system as well as the nearby villages of Volterra and Larderello.

The original plant has been gradually expanded over the years and now consists of 34 plants, which are operated by the Italian company Enel Green Power, or EGP. The site has a capacity of 800MW, which has resulted in Italy becoming the sixth-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.

Source:

https://www.power-technology.com/features/oldest-geothermal-plant-larderello/

Partner Spotlight – UGS

The Utah Geological Survey (UGS) is a state agency and division of the Utah Department of Natural Resources. The UGS provides timely scientific information about Utah’s geologic environment, resources, and hazards. Our work is focused on the generation and dissemination of geologic information to a variety of stakeholders that include the general public, and a diverse group of private, local, state, and federal entities. Seven specialized programs comprise the UGS: Energy & Minerals, Geologic Hazards, Geologic Information & Outreach, Geologic Mapping, Groundwater & Wetlands, Data Management, and Paleontology. As part of its mission the UGS also houses unique collections of geoscience data and physical samples including core and cuttings relating to Utah’s geothermal and other geologic resources.


The UGS strives to promote values that include excellence, integrity, and objectivity in everything we do; responsible stewardship of Utah’s geologic and energy resources; the free exchange of ideas and information in a spirit of cooperation; and provide prompt and courteous service to our customers and stakeholders.

The UGS celebrates and supports diversity, equity, and inclusion in the Geosciences and aims to maintain a safe and inclusive environment for our employees and the public we serve.

The UGS has been involved with the Utah FORGE project since its inception in 2014. UGS work on the FORGE project is based on strong collaboration with researchers at the Energy and Geoscience at University of Utah, the Idaho National Laboratory, and many others.  Early work included characterizing aspects of the site that include; the thermal setting, the groundwater system, geophysical setting focusing on gravity and basin depth, and geologic setting of the site and adjoining Mineral Mountains. This work culminated in the awarding of the FORGE project to the Utah site, and subsequent site development as a unique national laboratory focused on novel techniques to stimulate and develop low permeability hot rock resources.

Current UGS work is focused on campaign gravity, GPS deformation, and groundwater monitoring on and adjoining the Utah FORGE site. The goal of this work is to constrain baseline and temporal trends both prior to and during development and stimulation activities at the site. Recent work has included installation of two continuous GPS stations and regional groundwater sampling to constrain geochemistry as it relates to the geothermal setting at the site. Additional work has focused on refining and better constraining the conceptual geologic and hydrologic setting of the Utah FORGE site and adjoining North Milford Valley.


Cartographers at the UGS have recently completed a readily accessible geoscientific webmap that presents various background datasets (infrastructure, geologic, thermal, hydrologic, etc.) for the FORGE site. It is accessible at https://geology.utah.gov/apps/forge/. The UGS also assists with well permitting and acts as liaison with State of Utah agencies that regulate various parts of the Utah FORGE development.

Modeling and Simulation Forum #11 Recording

Utah FORGE Modeling & Simulation Forum #11


"Ground acceleration modeling from potential induced seismicity"

Presented by: Chandrakanth Bolisetti (Idaho National Laboratory)

October 20, 2021 at 11 am MDT

Ground motions generated by induced seismicity is an important consideration and design factor for the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and operations. Typically, ground motions are estimated from empirically based ground motion prediction equations using a moment magnitude and a distance with factors to account for local site conditions and in some cases faulting style. Ground motions specific to a site, recorded or modeled, for the specific site conditions and fault geometries may better inform hazard and risk calculations. Here we demonstrate a deterministic calculation of ground motions from postulated moment magnitudes at the Utah FORGE site using source-to-site earthquake simulations using the finite-element method in the codes, FALCON and MASTODON, developed and maintained at the Idaho National Laboratory. Sample results are presented from these simulations and a plan for future work is discussed.

This is the 11th forum of the series and is intended to have an open format to present modeling and simulation, both completed and planned, as well as activities being conducted by the Utah FORGE Team.

This webinar has been recorded and is available for viewing.

To follow along with the slides, the pdf of the presentation is available for download HERE

For previous forums and for the upcoming schedule check out the Modeling and Simulation FORUM page