Hot Dry Rock
Hot crystalline rock with essentially no porosity and lacking producible hot water. Geothermal production from hot dry rock reservoirs is the primary goal of EGS (enhanced geothermal system) research in which cold water is injected and hot fluid is produced.
Did you know... there is a geothermal “ocean” in Utah?
Just 30 minutes from Salt Lake City is Utah’s very own “ocean”. Built out of natural hot springs is the Bonneville Seabase, where you can go snorkeling and scuba diving! You will also find many different types of tropical fish during your underwater expedition.
Seabase gets its name from Lake Bonneville, a massive lake that covered the western half of Utah, and parts of Idaho and Nevada until about 13,000 years ago. The owners of Seabase, Linda Nelson and George Sanders, bought the land in 1988. Back then, it was a muddy marsh land covered in garbage. Today there are four areas to train and test your diving skills.
The first is White Rock Bay. It is the best place to see the tropical fish that live at Bonneville. Due to multiple warm springs located there, White Rock Bay The best time to see all of the fish is during the winter months, as that is where they congregate to keep warm.
Second is Habitat Bay. The pool is a man-made area underwater where air used to be pumped in so people could breathe while diving. While air is not being pumped into the pool continuously anymore, a diver can request for it to be filled up temporarily. The pool also has a sunken boat that is used for training and platforms that are 24 ft (~7 m) deep which makes them perfect for open-water scuba training.
Next is the Trench. The Trench is where Seabase is kept natural. While it is somewhat shallow, there is an abundance of fauna and natural biology. Due to its length, the Trench is a great place to practice your fin kicks and swim some “laps”!
Finally, there is the Abyss. While it is 62 ft (~19 m) deep, it has been altitude adjusted to 84 ft (~26 m). The Abyss was built for deep water training and is a good place to try out your buoyancy skills. It is also great for learning about safety stops, the importance of buddy diving, and night/limited visibility skills.
As mentioned before, Bonneville Seabase has an abundance of marine life! The “ocean” has fish of all shapes and sizes, from the 50-pound grouper to the little mollies. They have schools of pinfish and two friendly cortez angels. While you are exploring the waters, you might also find butterfly fish, snappers, mullet, black drum, jacks, tunicates, grunts, and more!
Typical of the large proportion of conventional geothermal resources in which wells are self-flowing or pumped depending on reservoir temperature. Self-flowing wells produce a mixture of steam and hot water from reservoirs that are close to boiling point or vapor-saturation. Pumped wells produce hot water only from reservoirs that are well below boiling temperature.
The highest grade of geothermal resource in which self-flowing wells produce dry steam from a reservoir containing a mixture of hot water and steam. Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California, USA are examples, and they are extremely rare.
Spinning axle mounted with fan blades that converts a fluid flow stream into mechanical energy. To produce electricity, the mechanical energy from the turbine is connected to a generator.
Molten rock typically having a temperature between 800° and 1100° C (~1500-2000° F). Magma is the source of high-grade geothermal energy in conventional resources.
Did you know... geothermal energy is growing flowers?
Newcastle, Utah is home to Milgro Nursery – and they use geothermal energy to power their greenhouses! In fact, their facility is one of the most successful geothermal energy applications for space heating in the United States.
Milgro Nursery first opened in 1980 in Oxnard, California, before opening a second location in Newcastle, Utah in 1991. It is a family-owned business and is one of the largest growers of chrysanthemums and poinsettias, along with various other plants, in the United States. They also grow a large variety of blooming plants, green plants, and succulents. Currently, the greenhouses grow over seven million potted plants per year. Milgro provides its plants to Walmart, Kroger, Trader Joe’s, and other major retailers.
The Newcastle greenhouses are located in a desert in southwestern Utah, along the southeast edge of the Escalante Valley. The desert has an elevation of around 5,300 ft (~1615 m), making it a prime location for geothermal heating. The combination of the geothermal system present and the relatively harsh outdoor weather conditions allows Milgro to manufacture almost any growing environment. High sunlight, cool temperatures, and geothermal energy make it cheaper to heat up the greenhouses than it is to use air conditioning to cool them down.
Though Milgro is located in a semi-arid desert, they are able to create humidity within the greenhouses. Had the greenhouses been located in a humid environment, it would be almost impossible to remove that humidity. The desert’s ample amount of sunlight also allows Milgro a more cost-effective control of crop lighting, given it is cheaper and easier to block light rather than create it. The location’s climate and Milgro’s use of geothermal energy assists in eliminating the use of fossil fuels, protecting the quality of the air, and conserving water.
During the first wave of the pandemic, millions of orders for Milgro plants were canceled, leaving with a massive amount of inventory – flowers that would only stay alive for a limited amount of time. To keep the flowers from going to waste, Milgro gave some to the residents of local nursing homes, hospital staff, and teachers – all for free! A personal friend of Milgro owner Cherilyn Smith, Jim Castimore, even drove a truck full of Milgro flowers to New York City and New Jersey.
Whatever the occasion, Milgro will have the geothermally-grown plants for you!
Milgro flowers at Trader Joe's.
Mud Pots and Mud Pools
Depressions filled with hot bubbling mud commonly associated with steaming ground. The mud is mostly made up of clay minerals which form as an alteration product and interaction between acidic condensed steam and rock-forming minerals.
Hot thermal ground associated with diffuse steam discharge. Vegetation is typically stunted or non-existent.